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Linux下已安装硬件的查看检查工具

时间:2016-12-14 16:58:57  作者:  来源:  浏览:0  评论:0
内容摘要:一次在帮助用户在Linux下安装带库时候发现在系统中总是不认,这个现象在U盘,ILO虚拟,添加HBA卡时都会经常发生,在POST时候明明能认到,但为啥到OS下就不认了呢?其实Linux也有硬件检测之类的工具和方法,类似我们的设备管理器:以下这些工具可以帮助大家尽快发现我们新安装的设备,或来判断到底是硬件是已经认到了还是...
一次在帮助用户在Linux下安装带库时候发现在系统中总是不认,这个现象在U盘,ILO虚拟,添加HBA卡时都会经常发生,在POST时候明明能认到,但为啥到OS下就不认了呢?
其实Linux也有硬件检测之类的工具和方法,类似我们的设备管理器:
以下这些工具可以帮助大家尽快发现我们新安装的设备,或来判断到底是硬件是已经认到了还是驱动没有加载;
Linux 下硬件探测工具
(1) /sbin/discover      **
Debian 安装过程依赖的硬件探测工具,能输出探测到的硬件的厂商、型号、
对应的 Linux 内核模块、设备文件、X server 名字、X driver 名字、设备
ID,比如
$ /sbin/discover --enable-all -f "%V, %M, %m, %d, %S, %D, %i\n" all
Intel Corporation, 440BX/ZX/DX - 82443BX/ZX/DX Host bridge, agpgart, , , , 80867190
Intel Corporation, 440BX/ZX/DX - 82443BX/ZX/DX AGP bridge, agpgart, , , , 80867191
Intel Corporation, 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ISA, , , , , 80867110
Intel Corporation, 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI, i2c-piix4, , , , 80867113
Unknown, VMware Virtual IDE CDROM Drive, , /dev/hdc, , ,
Advanced Micro Devices [AMD], 79c970 [PCnet32 LANCE], pcnet32, , , , 10222000
Intel Corporation, 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 IDE, piix, , , ,
LSI Logic / Symbios Logic, 53c1030 PCI-X Fusion-MPT Dual Ultra320 SCSI, mptscsih, , , ,
Linux, IDE-SCSI emulation layer, ide-scsi, , , ,
VMware Inc, [VMware SVGA II] PCI Display Adapter, , , XFree86, vmware, 15ad0405
VMware,, VMware Virtual S, , /dev/sda, , ,
优点:能输出硬件对应的设备文件和内核驱动名,支持总线类型:pci, isa,
      pcmcia, usb, ide, scsi, parallel, serial,支持设备类型:bridge,
      cdrom, disk, ide, scsi, usb, ethernet, modem, sound, video.
缺点:不能输出硬件连接的拓扑结构,没有硬件的详细信息。
(2) lshw, lshw-gtk      ****
lshw is a  small tool to extract detailed  information on the hardware
configuration   of   the  machine.   It   can   report  exact   memory
configuration, firmware version,  mainboard configuration, CPU version
and speed, cache configuration, bus  speed, etc. on DMI-capable x86 or
IA-64 systems  and on some PowerPC  machines (PowerMac G4  is known to
work).
It currently  supports DMI (x86  and IA-64 only),  OpenFirmware device
tree (PowerPC only), PCI/AGP, CPUID (x86), IDE/ATA/ATAPI, PCMCIA (only
tested on x86), SCSI and USB.
优点:非常详细的硬件信息,硬件连接拓扑结构,设备文件名,设备类型,支持
      html、xml 输出格式,有图形界面。
缺点:不能输出内核驱动名
(3) lspci, lsusb    *
输出 pci 和 usb 总线上的硬件的设备号、厂商、型号
(4) hwinfo          ****
硬件探测工具,支持的硬件类型:
bios, block, bluetooth, braille, bridge, camera, cdrom, chipcard, cpu,
disk, dsl, dvb, fingerprint, floppy, framebuffer, gfxcard, hub, ide,
isapnp, isdn, joystick, keyboard, memory, modem, monitor, mouse,
netcard, network, partition, pci, pcmcia, pcmcia-ctrl, pppoe, printer,
scanner, scsi, smp, sound, storage-ctrl, sys, tape, tv, usb, usb-ctrl,
vbe, wlan, and zip.
优点:遵循 HAL 的硬件信息描述标准,输出信息非常详细,包含设备文件名、设
备类型、设备能力、内核驱动信息等
缺点:相比 lshw,没有明显的树状结构显示,因此信息稍显凌乱
(5) kudzu, kudzu-vesa
Redhat 的硬件探测工具,用于在系统启动期间探测插拔了什么硬件,没用过,待补充。
(6) hal, hal-device-manager, gnome-device-manager   ****
包含 lshal, hal-find-by-property, hal-get-property, hal-device,
hal-set-property, hal-find-by-capability 等实用工具,输出设备的
HAL 描述信息,与 hwinfo 比较类似。
优点:非常详细的硬件信息,有图形界面。
缺点:输出格式上没有明显的树状结构显示。
(7) hardinfo
(8) hwreport
(9) hwsetup
(10) 其它
# mdetect
Mouse device autodetection tool. If present, it will be used to aid
XFree86 configuration tools.
# read-edid:
Hardware information-gathering tool for VESA PnP monitors. If present,
it will be used to aid XFree86 configuration tools.
# sndconfig:
Sound configuration (thank you, Red Hat Software, Inc.), using isapnp
detection. Requires kernel with OSS sound modules. Uses kudzu, aumix,
and sox.
# hotplug:
USB/PCI device hotplugging support, and network autoconfig.
# nictools-nopci:
Diagnostic and setup tools for many non-PCI ethernet cards
# nictools-pci:
Diagnostic and setup tools for many PCI ethernet cards.
# mii-diag:
"A little tool to manipulate network cards" (examines and sets the MII
registers of network cards).
# printtool
Autodetection of printers and PPD support, via an enhanced version of Red Hat
Software"s Tk-based printtool. Requires the pconf-detect command-line utility
for detecting parallel-port, USB, and network-connected printers (which can be
installed separately as package pconf-detect).
# lpinfo
# scanModem
# hwd
# Xorg -configure
# xdpyinfo, xvinfo, xrandr
# hdparam
# dmidecode
参考:
http://gentoo-wiki.com/HARDWARE_Detecting_your_Hardware
http://linuxmafia.com/faq/Debian/hardware-detection.html

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